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General Gynecology

Menstrual cycles

​Cycles are often irregular during the first 2 years after the onset of menstruation due to immature biofeedback between the ovaries and the brain. These early cycles are often anovulatory, meaning that there is no ovulation during the menstrual cycle.

Mastalgaia (breast pain)

Mastalgia (breast pain) is tenderness of the breasts that can occur at any time in a woman’s life. It may or may not be associated with her menstrual cycle. Breast pain is not necessarily an indication of a more serious condition.


Vaginal and/or genital bleeding in women who are in menopause is abnormal and requires immediate medical attention.


Vaginitis is a medical term that is used to refer to any infection or inflammation of the vagina. The symptoms of vaginitis are common and most women will have at least one form of vaginitis in their lifetime. The most common forms of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections.Despite all the advertising by manufacturers of feminine hygiene products, there are no practical reasons for women to douche on a regular basis. In fact, douching on a regular basis can be harmful for vaginal health.

Pap smear

The Pap test is a way to examine cells collected from the cervix and vagina. This test can show the presence of infection, inflammation, abnormal cells, or cancer. It is important to receive a Pap smear on a regular basis, as well as HPV testing.


HPV, or Human Papilloma Virus, is a high risk factor for cervical cancer and certain strains (16 and 18) require immediate attention. Benign strains of HPV (6 and 11) can lead to skin papilloma growths.Ovarian masses and cysts are common in women. It is important to realize that the vast majority of these are benign. However, ovarian cysts in post-menopausal women require a close follow up with a specialist.

Pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse is a bulging in vagina that frequently occurs in post-menopausal women and women with history of multiple vaginal deliveries. Some potential symptoms include:

  • urinary incontinence (involuntary loss of urine)
  • constipation
  • pain during sexual intercourse.


There are two types of treatments available for pelvic organ prolapse:

  • surgical
  • conservative - exercises, pessary

Our office is currently equipped with the latest model of pessary fitting kit designed specifically for each type of prolapse. Each pessary can be individually fitted (in size and shape) for each individual patient.